スピーチの達人スティーブ・ジョブズに学ぶ”Stay Hungry, Stay Foolish” By Steve Jobs

スピーチをうまくこなすには、英語が上級レベルではないとなかなか難しい・・・

というお考えをもった生徒さんが多いです。

 

ですが、奇麗なスピーチを行うために一番大切なのは、準備です。

そしてそのスピーチを支える骨格的な役割を果たす、アウトラインがまとまっていて、

その流れがロジカルであることが最も重要です。

 

魅力的またはインスパイアさせられるようなスピーチを行うには、

決して難しい単語を並べたり、ファンシーな言い回しができるかではなく

いかにシンプルで、メッセージが分かりやすいかがとても大切です。

 

お手本として、2005年名門大学スタンフォードの卒業式でスティーブ・ジョブスが

Commencement Speechを行った際のスピーチのテキストをピックアップしました。

 

英語のスピーチを組み立てる際に、リスナーの心をひきつけるイントロダクションが

大切になってきます。イントロダクションでは、スピーチのトピック、

そしてスピーチの構成をまとめます。

 

つまりスピーチのはじめに、結論と始まりを伝えなくてはなりません。

私がスピーチを作成する際には、イントロダクションは全体の構造が決まってから

後で具体的に内容を作成します。そうすることでスピーチの全体を把握し、

中核となるトピックまたはテーマがスピーチの内容と合っているかを

確認しながら作成できます。

 

それでは、ネゴシエーションの達人ともいわれたSteve Jobsのスピーチをクローズアップしてみましょう。

"I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I've ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal. Just three stories."

彼のイントロダクションはとてもシンプルにまとまっています。

スピーチは、3つのストーリーで構成されることを事前にリスナーに伝えてます。

そして彼は大学を卒業したことがないという発言からはじめます。

これは大学の卒業式に参加する卒業生のリスナーにとってとても衝撃的な事実だったと思います。

これで、しっかりとリスナーの注目を惹き付けてることになったと思います。

そして、スピーチの本題に入っていきます。

"The first story is about connecting the dots."

本題に入る前に、一つ目のタイトルまたはテーマを伝えます。

" I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out? "

そしてさらに、そのテーマについて具体的な問題を提示します。

"So why did I drop out?"と、質問をながけることにより、

リスナーと問題を分かち合い、リスナーとの距離を縮めます。

"It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: "We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said: "Of course." My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.

スピーチを組み立てる際に、文章はなるべく簡潔、シンプルで、スムーズに話せるように作成します。

And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents' savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn't see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn't interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.

リスナーのことを事前に調べ、

トピックに対してリスナーが想像しやすい、

または関連できるような内容でスピーチを組み立てることで、

リスナーのアテンションをキープすることができます。

It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:

できるだけ具体的に経験や、事実を述べることで説得力が増します。

Steve Jobsといえば、今では、アップルコンピューターを世界中に広めた成功者として知られていますが、

若い頃の苦労を具体的な数字で表しています。空き瓶を集めて、一本につき6セントを売り上げて、

その集まったお金で毎日の食材を買っていたという。

このような具体的なエピソードな、実際のその当時の様子が想像できます。

リスナーが想像しやすいコンテンツは、リスナーの心を惹き付けます。

Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't capture, and I found it fascinating.

このスピーチが発表されるまで、スティーブが後に成功をおさめることになった秘訣が、

なんと大学を中退したことにあったなんて、誰も知りませんでした。

あまり知られていない体験談、事実、研究結果などをリスナーに紹介すると、

リスナーの関心はさらに高まります。

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, it's likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.

一つ目のストーリーの結論をまとめてから、二つ目のストーリーに展開しています。

"Again, you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life."

二つ目のストーリーに入る前に、またタイトルを伝えます。

My second story is about love and loss.

最初の文章で、どういう話の展開になるか大体想像ができます。

I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.

I really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down – that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.

I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.

During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I returned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.

そしてまた2つ目のストーリーの最後にまとめて、3つ目のストーリーに入っていきます。

I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don't lose faith. I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You've got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don't settle.

3つ目のストーリーに入る前にまたここでもテーマを伝えます。

My third story is about death.

When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.

「いつか自分も死ぬだろう」ということを忘れずにいることは、

人生で大きな決断をする際に、役立ったもっとも重要なツールです。

この経験を語るために、一段落前では、スティーブは33年間行ってきた習慣について話しています。

Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure – these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.

スピーチの文章を構成する際に、実際に声に出して読んだときにスムーズに流れているかどうかが大切になってきます。

川のせせらぎのような、自然に流れるリズム、イントネーションを意識し、

言いまわしや、文章の区切りなどを調整することでリスナーにとって、

情報が聞きとりやすいスピーチへブラッシュアップされます。

About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.

この表現"buttoned up"というのは、直訳でボタンをしめるという意味です。

この場合、なるべく家族があなたの死をうまくうけいれられるように、準備をすること。という訳になります。

ボタンをしめるという比喩が、悲しい情景を表現しています。このようにシンプルな比喩をつかうことで、

リスナーがスティーブの体験を想像することができます。

I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine now.

This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope it's the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:

スティーブはここで、自分の体験談から一般的な観点について話します。

このようにして、パーソナルな体験談を話した場合、必ずパブリックにつなげることが英語のスピーチ作りの黄金のルールとなります。

そうすることで、リスナーとの距離がさらに縮まります。

No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.

ここの段落で、ステーィブは彼の人生教訓的、mottoについて話します。

"Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life."

時間は限られている、だから他の人の人生を歩のに時間を無駄にするな。

Don't be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

その方法として、具体的にリスト化し、想像ができやすいように丁寧にスピーチが構成されています。

When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960's, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.

3つ目のストーリーが終盤にかかり、最後のまとめになります。この時、スティーブはキャッチフレーズを紹介するために新たなストーリーを話します。

Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.

スピーチのメッセージをリスナーに記憶してもらう。

"Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish."

最後にリスナーや関係者の方々にお礼する。

"Thank you all very much."

このように英語のスピーチを作成する際に、英語力ももちろん大切ですが

スピーチの組み立て方をアウトラインにそって行うことで、リスナーにとって

分かりやすい、伝わりやすい美しい英語スピーチができあがってきます。

Let's enjoy making a beautiful speech!

 

Source : http://news.stanford.edu/news/2005/june15/jobs-061505.html

 

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